“And the God of peace himself sanctify you wholly; and may your spirit and soul and body be preserved entire, without blame at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.”
Man a trinity.
That the human soul and spirit are not identical is proved by the facts that they are divisible. Hebrews 4:12 and that soul and spirit are sharply distinguished in the burial and resurrection of the body. It is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body. 1 Corinthians 15:44.
To assert, therefore, that there is no difference between soul and spirit is to assert that there is no difference between the mortal body and the resurrection body.
In Scripture use, the distinction between spirit and soul may be traced. Briefly, that distinction is that the spirit is that part of man which “knows” 1 Corinthians 2:11 his mind; the soul is the seat of the affections, desires, and so of the emotions, and of the active will, the self. “My soul is exceeding sorrowful” Matthew 26:38 see also Matthew 11:29; John 12:27.
The word transliterated “soul” in the Old Testament (nephesh) is the exact equivalent of the New Testament word for soul (εὐψυχέω), and the use of “soul” in the Old Testament is identical with the use of that word in the New Testament (see, e.g. Deuteronomy 6:5; 14:26; 1 Samuel 18:1; 20:4,17; Job 7:11,15; 14:22; Psalms 42:6; 84:2).
The New Testament word for spirit (pneuma) like the Old Testament (ruach), is translated “air”, “breath”, “wind,” but predominantly “spirit,” whether of God (Genesis 1:2; Matthew 3:16) or of man (Genesis 41:8; 1 Corinthians 5:5).
Because man is “spirit” he is capable of God-consciousness, and of communication with God; Job 32:8; Psalms 18:28; Proverbs 20:27 because he is “soul” he has self- consciousness; Psalms 13:2; 42:5,6,11 because he is “body” he has, through his senses, world consciousness.